As device dimensions continue to shrink into the nanometer length-scale regime, conventional technology will approach fundamental physical limits. Further miniaturization based on conventional scaling appears neither technically nor economically feasible. New strategies, including the use of novel materials and one-dimensional device concepts, innovative device architectures, and smart integration schemes, need to be explored and assessed. They are crucial to extending current capabilities and maintaining momentum beyond the end of the technology roadmap time frame. Researchers at IBM Research - Zurich have set up an agenda for extensive investigation of functional nanostructures for ultimate and beyond-CMOS devices, focusing in particular on semiconductor nanowires and on spintronics.