Memories that constitute resistance as the state variable encompass a very broad range of materials and switching mechanisms.
Of these technologies, some, namely magnetic random access memory (MRAM), phase-change memory (PCM) and reduction/oxidation (redox) memories, have received more attention from the scientific community and the semiconductor industry and are thus in a more advanced state of research and/or development.
At IBM Research – Zurich, we are pursuing yet another resistive memory concept based on carbon.
Carbon-based memory could be a significant complement to the rapid advances in carbon-based nano-electronics. This could pave the way for potential all-carbon computing devices of the future.
The elemental nature of carbon would enable a carbon-based memory to be scaled down to very small feature sizes and to be immune to compositional changes that typically plague alternate multi-elemental non-volatile memory materials.
Moreover, the high resilience of carbon to a variety of external stimuli would ensure robustness and endurance of such a carbon-based memory.
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Department head, IBM Fellow
 A. Sebastian, A. Pauza, C. Rossel, R. M. Shelby, A. F. Rodriguez, H. Pozidis and E. Eleftheriou,
“Resistance switching at the nanometre scale in amorphous carbon,” New Journal of Physics 13(1), 013020, 2011.
 L. Dellmann, A. Sebastian, P. Jonnalagada, C. A. Santini, W. W. Koelmans, C. Rossel and E. Eleftheriou,
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 W.W. Koelmans and A. Sebastian,
“Carbon Memory: The Key Technical Challenges,” ITRS ERD Workshop, Albuquerque, 2014.
 C.A. Santini, A. Sebastian, C. Marchiori, V.P. Jonnalagadda, L. Dellmann, W.W. Koelmans, M.D. Rossell, C.P. Rossel and E. Eleftheriou,
“Oxygenated amorphous carbon for resistive memory applications,” Nature Communications 6, 8600, 2015.
 W.W. Koelmans, T. Bachmann, F. Zipoli, A. K. Ott, C. Dou, A.C. Ferrari, O. Cojocaru-Mirédin, S. Zhang, M. Wuttig, V.K. Nagareddy, M.F. Craciun, A.M. Alexeev, C.D. Wright, V.P. Jonnalagadda, A. Curioni, A. Sebastian and E. Eleftheriou,
“Carbon-based resistive memories,” International Memory Workshop, May 2016.